Hon. Consulate of Mongolia in the United States
           Carmen B Cabell · Honorary Consul General
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In 1206 AD, a single Mongolian state was formed based on nomadic tribal groupings under the leadership of Genghis Khan. He and his immediate successors explored nearly all of Asia and European Russia and sent missions as far as central Europe and Southeast Asia. Genghis Khan's grandson Khubilai Khan, who explored China and established the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368 AD), gained fame in Europe through the writings of Marco Polo.

Although Mongol-led confederations sometimes exercised wide political power over their territories, their strength declined rapidly after the Mongol dynasty in China was overthrown in 1368. The Manchus, a tribal group which conquered China in 1644 and formed the Qing dynasty, were able to bring Mongolia under Manchu control in 1691 as Outer Mongolia when the Khalkha Mongol nobles swore an oath of allegiance to the Manchu emperor. The Mongol rulers of Outer Mongolia enjoyed considerable autonomy under the Manchus, and all Chinese claims to Outer Mongolia following the establishment of the republic have rested on this oath.

Outer Mongolia was a Manchus outerland until 1911, an autonomous state under Russian protection from 1912 to 1919. The Mongols accepted Russian aid and proclaimed their independence of Manchus rule in 1911, shortly after a successful Chinese revolt against the Manchus. By agreements signed in 1913 and 1915, the Russian Government forced the new Chinese Republican Government to accept Mongolian autonomy under continued Chinese control, presumably to discourage other foreign powers from approaching a newly independent Mongolian state that might seek support from as many foreign sources as possible.

The Russian revolution and civil war afforded Chinese warlords an opportunity to re-establish their rule in Outer Mongolia, and Chinese troops were dispatched there in 1919. Mongolia declared its independence again in 1921. The Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed on November 26, 1924.


















To the Young Mongols;
Never Forget The Mongolian scholars
Who were willing to sacrifice their lives to preserve your history.

This Noble king was Genghis Khan,
Who in his time was of so great renown,
That there was nowhere in on region,
So excellent a lord in all things

“As he smashed the futile system of aristocratic privilege and birth, he built a new and unique system based on individual merit, loyalty, and achievement. He took the disjointed and languorous trading towns along the Silk Route and organized them into history’s largest free-trade zone. He lowered taxes for everyone, and abolished them all together for doctors, teachers, priests, and educational institutions. He established a regular census and created the first international postal system. He was not an empire that hoarded wealth and treasure; instead, he widely distributed the goods acquired in combat so that they could make their way back into commercial circulation…”

“He created an international law and recognized the ultimate supreme law of the Eternal Blue Sky over all people. At a time when most rulers considered themselves to be above the law, Genghis Khan insisted on laws holding rulers as equally accountable as the lowest herder. He granted religious freedom within his realms, though he demanded total loyalty from conquered subjects of all religions. He insisted on the rule of law and abolishment of torture, but he mounted major campaigns to seek out and kill all raiding bandits and terrorist assassins. He refused to hold hostages, and instead instituted the novel practice of granting diplomatic immunity to all ambassadors and envoys, including those from hostile nations with whom he was at war. ’Say Ye unto the khwarezmians that I am sovereign of the sunrise and he is sovereign of the sunset. Let there be a firm treaty of friendship, amity, and peace, and let traders and caravans on both sides come and go.”

“If my body dies, let my body die, but do not let my country die.”

“With Heaven’s aid I have conquered for you a huge empire, but my life was too short to achieve conquest of the whole world. That task is left for you.”

“Those who were adept and brave fellows I have made military commanders. Those who were quick and nimble I have made herders of horses. Those who were not adept I have given a small whip and sent to be shepherds.”

The Strength of a wall is neither greater than, nor less than the courage of the men who defend it.”

“The merit of any action lies in finishing it to its end.”



Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia (landlocked)
Area: Total: 1.565 million sq km (water: 9,600 sq km, land: 1,555,400 sq km)
Area - comparative: Slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries: Total: 8,162 km, with China 4,677 km, Russia 3,485 km
Climate: Continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Natural resources: Oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron, phosphate
Land use: Cultivated - 1%, forest - 11%, pasture - 77%
Population: 2,635,000(End of 2007)
Urban population: 65%
Population growth rate: 1.49% (2008)
Birth rate: 21.44 births/1,000 population (2004)
Death rate: 7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2004)
Life expectancy at birth: Total population: 67 (2006)
male: 61.97 years
female: 66.48 years (2004)
Total fertility rate: 2.27 children born/woman (2004)
Nationality: Noun: Mongolian(s)
Adjective: Mongolian
Ethnic groups: Mongol(predominantly Khalkha) 85%, Turkic (of which Kazakh is the largest group) 7%, Tungusic 4.6%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 3.4% (1998)
Religions: Buddhism - 85%, Christian 5%, Muslim - 4,1%
Literacy: 97%, (female: 97,5%)
Country name: Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Mongolia
Local short form: Mongol Uls
Freedom house index: (1 is the highest, 7 is the lowest) According to Freedom House Mongolia considered as totally free country since 1994.
Political rights – 2.00, Civil liberties – 2.00
Capital: Ulaanbaatar
Constitution: Since January 13, 1992
National holiday: Independence Day/Revolution Day, July 11
Head of State:

Executive branch:
President (elected by popular vote to serve for four-year)

Prime Minister and Cabinet: Prime Minister and Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural (Parliament) in consultation with the President
Legislative branch: State Great Hural (Unicameral, 76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve for four year)
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people’s and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for approval by the President)
Political parties: 24 parties (multi-party system)
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
State structure: Unitary state. Territory of Mongolia is divided administratively into 21 aimags (province) and the capital city.
Currency: Tughrik, 1US$=1,158.49 Tg
GDP: $1,2 billion
GDP growth rate: 5.2% (2003)
GDP per capita: $470
Unemployment: 3.4% (2002)
Major exports: Copper, livestock, animal products, wool, hides
Exports of goods and services: $603 million
Exports – partners: China 48.1%, US 30.1%, Russia 6.9%, South Korea 4.2%
Major imports: Machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Imports of goods and services: $752 million
Imports – partners: Russia 42.3%, China 23.8%, South Korea 15.3%, Japan 7.5%, Mongolia is the 127th largest U.S. trading partner
Foreign direct investment: $1 billion
Index of economic freedom: According to the “2004index of economic freedom” report Mongolia standing on 63rd place (Mostly free)
Number of tourists annually visiting Mongolia: 451.598 (2007)
Americans: about 13.000 (up to 90 days are exempted from visa requirements)